Sixty-five years ago last Thursday, the airborne landings commenced just west of the city of Arnhem in eastern Holland. On 17 September 1944, the Allied forces had been on campaign through western Europe for 3 months, after the successful landings in Normandy on 6 June. Airborne troops were parachuted into the area between Ede and Arnhem to engage the German forces, which were occupying Holland at the time. Although the Allies managed to penetrate into Arnhem, they failed to seize the Rhine bridge there. Fierce fighting in the city dislodged them from forward positions. Poor communications as well as a stronger resistance than anticipated forced a withdrawal south across the River Rhine.
Arnhem and Oosterbeek were evacuated, and looted by the Germans. Holland north of the Rhine remained occupied until the early spring of 1945. In the wake of the failed action at Arnhem, the Netherlands' railway network in the occupied sectors went on indefinite strike. This caused major problems for the Nazi forces, but also for food supplies - by the spring of 1945, thousands of people in the major conurbations in western Holland had starved to death. Others survived by eating flower bulbs. The Allies finally managed to cross the river at Remagen, between Cologne and Koblenz, in February 1945.
Picture courtesy www.gelderlander.nl, credits Pouw Jongbloed
Today, veterans gathered on the Ginkelse Hei [Ginkel Heathland], some 15 miles west of Arnhem, to watch another parachute jump. Others laid wreaths at the War Cemetery at Oosterbeek. The German ambassador to the Netherlands also laid a wreath.